My colleague Will Orde has already written about the wonders of Artificial Intelligence applied to image processing in a previous post.
I came across this article that does a magnificent job breaking down what goes on 'inside the mind' of a convolutional neural network, one of the most exciting fields in computing today. It is a bit involved but is well worth a read:
Convolutional neural networks. Sounds like a weird combination of biology and math with a little CS sprinkled in, but these networks have been some of the most influential innovations in the field of computer vision. 2012 was the first year that neural nets grew to prominence as Alex Krizhevsky used them to win that year’s ImageNet competition (basically, the annual Olympics of computer vision), dropping the classification error record from 26% to 15%, an astounding improvement at the time.